17 7694–7698. [citation needed] When first flown over by aircraft, numerous settlements with agricultural terraces and stockades were observed. O’Connell, J. F., and J. Allen. Numerous smaller islands are located to the west and east. Papua New Guinea (PNG) is an island nation in Oceania. "New Guinea" (Nueva Guinea) was the name coined by the Spanish explorer Yñigo Ortiz de Retez. The referendum question was a choice between greater autonomy within Papua New Guinea and full independence for Bougainville, and voters voted overwhelmingly (98.31%) for independence. The name Irian, which was originally favored by natives, is now considered to be a name imposed by the authority of Jakarta.[2]. PNG includes a number of terrestrial ecoregions: Three new species of mammals were discovered in the forests of Papua New Guinea by an Australian-led expedition in the early 2010s. During World War II, the New Guinea campaign (1942–1945) was one of the major military campaigns and conflicts between Japan and the Allies. [52], The Royal Papua New Guinea Constabulary has been troubled in recent years by infighting, political interference and corruption. [3] The name appears to come from the words papo (to unite) and ua (negation), which means "not united" or, "territory that geographically is far away (and thus not united)".[3][4]. [60] The declaration of Hela and Jiwaka is a result of the largest liquefied natural gas[61] project in the country that is situated in both provinces. When the Portuguese and Spanish explorers arrived in the island via the Spice Islands, they also referred to the island as Papua. In the period from 1998 to 2008, conservationists identified 1,060 new species in New Guinea, including 218 plants, 43 reptiles, 12 mammals, 580 invertebrates, 134 amphibians, 2 birds and 71 fish. Settlement or squatter areas of towns and cities are particularly dangerous. Bougainville Island, easternmost island of Papua New Guinea, in the Solomon Sea, southwestern Pacific.With Buka Island and several island groups, it forms the autonomous region of Bougainville. [16] Nearly 40% of the population lives a self-sustainable natural lifestyle with no access to global capital. Located north of the Australian mainland, the country's geography is diverse and, in places, extremely rugged. Papua New Guinea is one of the most culturally diverse countries in the world; 848 languages are listed for the country, of which 12 have no known living speakers. Papua New Guinea has an urbanisation rate of 2.51%, measured as the projected change in urban population from 2015 to 2020. The separation is not merely linguistic; warfare among societies was a factor in the evolution of the men's house: separate housing of groups of adult men, from the single-family houses of the women and children, for mutual protection from other tribal groups. A spine of east–west mountains, the New Guinea Highlands, dominates the geography of New Guinea, stretching over 1,600 km (1,000 mi) across the island, with many mountains over 4,000 m (13,100 ft). Located in Melanesia in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, it is separated by the 150-kilometre (81 nmi; 93 mi) wide Torres Strait from the Australian continent. As the Indo-Australian Plate (which includes landmasses of India, Australia, and the Indian Ocean floor in between) drifts north, it collides with the Eurasian Plate. Singapore: Periplus Editions. Question: What continent is New Guinea part of? to amendment #22)", "Papua New Guinea keen to join ASEAN | The Brunei Times", From Primitive to Postcolonial in Melanesia and Anthropology, New report doubles death toll on Bougainville to 20,000, "Bougainville referendum: region votes overwhelmingly for independence from Papua New Guinea", "Looters shot dead amid chaos of Papua New Guinea's anti-Chinese riots", "Papua New Guinea earthquake: UN pulls out aid workers from violence-hit region", "Papua New Guinea earthquake: anger grows among 'forgotten victims, "Can the next #PNG Government do better on West Papua? The nation established independence from Australia on 16 September 1975, becoming a Commonwealth realm, continuing to share Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. [25] As of 2019, the Indonesian portion of New Guinea and the Maluku Islands is estimated to have 9,518 species of vascular plants, of which 4,380 are endemic. These were the Austronesian people, who had spread down from Taiwan, through the South-east Asian archipelago, colonising many of the islands on the way. Freehold title (also known as fee simple) can only be held by Papua New Guinean citizens. Additionally, from 1905, British New Guinea was renamed as the Territory of Papua. The Austronesian people had technology and skills extremely well adapted to ocean voyaging and Austronesian language speaking people are present along much of the coastal areas and islands of New Guinea. In 2011, Commissioner for Police Anthony Wagambie took the unusual step of asking the public to report police asking for payments for performing their duties. Oil palm production has grown steadily over recent years (largely from estates and with extensive outgrower output), with palm oil now the main agricultural export. [14] The country is one of the world's least explored, culturally and geographically. All rights and freedoms of Papua New Guinea's citizens are protected by the constitution and are outlined in its articles. The current prime minister is James Marape. [3] However, Westerners, beginning with Spanish explorer Yñigo Ortiz de Retez in 1545, used the name New Guinea, referring to the similarities of the features of the indigenous peoples to those of native Africans of the Guinea region of the continent. Arc-continent collision in Papua Guinea: Constraints from fission track thermochronology Kevin C. Hill and Asaf Raza • Australian Geodynamics Cooperative Research Centre, Department of Earth Sciences, La Trobe University, Melbourne Victoria, Australia Abstract. Religious syncretism is high, with many citizens combining their Christian faith with some traditional indigenous religious practices. Find an accommodation, rent a house in Papua New Guinea and much more. The term Papuan languages refers to an areal grouping, rather than a linguistic one, since so-called Papuan languages comprise hundreds of different languages, most of which are not related.[21]. They were descendants of migrants out of Africa, in one of the early waves of human migration.[23]. Transport in Papua New Guinea is heavily limited by the country's mountainous terrain. Irian is the name used in the Biak language and other languages such as Serui, Merauke and Waropen. "Melanesia, the ethnogeographic region that includes New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and New Caledonia, contains some of the most remote and inaccessible populations on earth." The ancestral Austronesian peoples are believed to have arrived considerably later, approximately 3,500 years ago, as part of a gradual seafaring migration from Southeast Asia, possibly originating in Taiwan. [74], The climate on the island is essentially tropical, but it varies by region. [12] Papua New Guinea is part of the Australasian realm, which also includes Australia, New Zealand, eastern Indonesia, and several Pacific island groups, including the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. The Central Range is much younger and higher than the mountains of Australia, so high that it is home to rare equatorial glaciers. On 16 September 1975, Australia granted full independence to Papua New Guinea. The western half, known as Western New Guinea or West Papua,[1] forms a part of Indonesia and is organized as the provinces of Papua and West Papua. World Development Indicators. The first major gas project was the PNG LNG joint venture. As part of the current peace settlement, a non-binding independence referendum was held, between 23 November and 7 December 2019. Several provinces have changed their names; such changes are not strictly speaking official without a formal constitutional amendment, though "Oro," for example, is universally used in reference to that province. [67] Papua New Guinea is one of the few regions close to the equator that experience snowfall, which occurs in the most elevated parts of the mainland. The maximum mean temperature in the lowlands is 30 to 32 ° C, and the minimum 23-24 ° C. In the highlands above 2100 meters, colder conditions prevail and night frosts are common there, while the daytime temperature exceeds 22° C, regardless of the season. [111] The Papua New Guinea national rugby league team usually plays against the Australian Prime Minister's XIII (a selection of NRL players) each year, normally in Port Moresby. The Prime Minister heads the cabinet, which consists of 31 members of Parliament from the ruling coalition, which make up the government. In the early 1970s, they introduced the term Greater Australia for the Pleistocene continent. The people, known as the Dani, were the last society of its size to make first contact with the rest of the world. In 2012, the first two (of three) readings were passed to prevent votes of no confidence occurring within the first 30 months. The name is one of several toponyms sharing similar etymologies, ultimately meaning "land of the blacks" or similar meanings, in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants. By John Roach, for, Collingridge, George The discovery of Australia, Sidney, 1895, pp.186–187, Translation of Torres’ report to the king in Collingridge, G. (1895), Northern New Guinea lowland rain and freshwater swamp forests, Southern New Guinea freshwater swamp forests, United Nations Temporary Executive Authority, https://web.archive.org/web/20200209234437/https://www.tapol.org/our-work/west-papua, Kincaid and Kline, "Retreat of the Irian Jaya Glaciers from 2000 to 2002 as Measured from IKONOS Satellite Images", paper presented at 61st Eastern Snow Conference, Portland, Maine, 2004, "On the Physical Geography of the Malay Archipelago", "Big Bank Shoals of the Timor Sea: An environmental resource atlas", "Map from above shows Australia is a very flat place", "A Chat with Tim Flannery on Population Control", Anthropology Professor Glenn Summerhayes, University of Otago, New Zealand. [38] During Tidore's rule, the main exports of the island during this period were resins, spices, slaves and the highly priced feathers of the bird-of-paradise. [116], Vision 2050's medium-term priorities are:[116], According to Thomson Reuters' Web of Science, Papua New Guinea had the largest number of publications (110) among Pacific Island states in 2014, followed by Fiji (106). The Constitution of Papua New Guinea is the supreme law in the country and is an entrenched constitution in which all ordinary statutory enactments are subordinate to its provisions. Local developers are handicapped by years of deficient investment in education, health, and access to finance. English is the language of government and the education system, but it is not spoken widely. [27], According to the WWF, New Guinea can be divided into twelve terrestrial ecoregions:[28], The WWF and Nature Conservancy divide New Guinea into five freshwater ecoregions:[29], The WWF and Nature Conservancy identify several marine ecoregions in the seas bordering New Guinea:[30], The first inhabitants, from whom the Papuan people are probably descended, adapted to the range of ecologies and, in time, developed one of the earliest known agricultures. With the Papua Act 1905, the UK transferred this territory to the newly formed Commonwealth of Australia, which took on its administration. The collision of the two plates pushed up the Himalayas, the Indonesian islands, and New Guinea's Central Range. Another major habitat feature is the vast southern and northern lowlands. The island of New Guinea lies to the east of the Malay Archipelago, with which it is sometimes included as part of a greater Indo-Australian Archipelago. Read our insider’s guide on the best places to visit in Papua New Guinea, as recommended by Telegraph Travel. Candidates for members of parliament are voted upon when the prime minister asks the governor-general to call a national election, a maximum of five years after the previous national election. Stretching for hundreds of kilometres, these include lowland rainforests, extensive wetlands, savanna grasslands, and some of the largest expanses of mangrove forest in the world. The confrontation reached a peak, with the deputy prime minister entering the supreme court during a hearing, escorted by police, ostensibly to arrest the chief justice. The Bird’s Head Peninsula, also known as the Doberai Peninsula, sticks out of the northwestern part of New Guinea. Those who become skilled at hunting, farming and fishing earn a great deal of respect. His expedition also discovered Basilaki Island naming it Tierra de San Buenaventura, which he claimed for Spain in July 1606. [117] The European Union has funded the Renewable Energy in Pacific Island Countries Developing Skills and Capacity programme (EPIC). Further gas and mineral projects are proposed (including the large Wafi-Golpu copper-gold mine), with extensive exploration ongoing across the country. Each province is divided into one or more districts, which in turn are divided into one or more Local-Level Government areas. [69] The maritime boundary with Australia was confirmed by a treaty in 1978. Explore the world.Discover the beauty hidden in the maps. [45][46] A 2013 study in The Lancet found that 27% of men on Bougainville Island reported having raped a non-partner, while 14.1% reported having committed gang rape. There was strong pressure among some MPs to defer the national elections for a further six months to one year, although their powers to do that were highly questionable. Some areas are accessible only on foot or by aeroplane. It is usually considered, geographically, part of the continent of Asia. [31] Sugarcane was cultivated for the first time in New Guinea around 6000 BC.[32]. This has been identified with the Onin Peninsula, part of the Bomberai Peninsula near the city of Fakfak. The unicameral Parliament enacts legislation in the same manner as in other Commonwealth realms that use the Westminster system of government. The island has been known by various names: The name Papua was used to refer to parts of the island before contact with the West. It is connected to the Australian segment by a shallow continental shelf across the Torres Strait, which in former ages lay exposed as a land bridge, particularly during ice ages when sea levels were lower than at present. For the single by The Future Sound of London, see, Largest cities and towns in Papua New Guinea. It has an exclusive economic zone of 2,402,288 km2 (927,529 sq mi). As of 2020 there are over 30,000 members of the Bahá’í Faith in PNG. At 462,840 km2 (178,704 sq mi), Papua New Guinea is the world's 54th largest country and the 3rd largest island country. Highly divergent molecular variants of human T-lymphotropic virus type I from isolated populations in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, A Gessian, R Yanagihara, G Franchini, R M Garruto, C L Jenkins, A B Ajdukiewicz, R C Gallo, and D C Gajdusek, PNAS September 1, 1991 vol. As a consequence, they have their own flora and fauna; in particular, they lack many of the land mammals and flightless birds that are common to New Guinea and Australia. The flora of New Guinea is a mixture of many tropical rainforest species with origins in Asia, together with typically Australasian flora. [34] A unique feature of New Guinea permaculture is the silviculture of Casuarina oligodon, a tall, sturdy native ironwood tree, suited to use for timber and fuel, with root nodules that fix nitrogen. Traders from Southeast Asia had visited New Guinea beginning 5,000 years ago to collect bird-of-paradise plumes.[30]. Location of Papua New Guinea: Oceania, group of islands including the eastern half of the island of New Guinea between the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean, east of Indonesia: Continent: Australia : Land Area Total: 462,840 sq km : Region: South Pacific Oceania: Land Area Land: 452,860 sq km : Capitol City: Port Moresby : Land Area Water: 9,980 sq km The law underpinning the village courts is 'customary law'. The precise nature of the seisin varies from one culture to another. Many of the world's uncontacted indigenous peoples are thought to be hiding in both Papua and West Papua. The courts have jurisdiction to rule on the constitutionality of statutes, both in disputes before them and on a reference where there is no dispute but only an abstract question of law. In other regions, the bride price is paid in lengths of shell money, pigs, cassowaries or cash. [93][94]The most widely spoken indigenous language is Enga, with about 200,000 speakers, followed by Melpa and Huli. Human habitation of New Guinea over tens of thousands of years has led to a great deal of diversity, which was further increased by the later arrival of the Austronesians and the more recent history of European and Asian settlement through events like transmigration. Total S.A. has separately another joint operating agreement with Oil Search . Port Moresby — the capital city with its interesting Zoological gardens, the Parliament building, the museum, and general Melanesian atmosphere. However, the Queensland government's superiors in the United Kingdom revoked the claim, and (formally) assumed direct responsibility in 1884, when Germany claimed north-eastern New Guinea as the protectorate of German New Guinea (also called Kaiser-Wilhelmsland). Matzke, R.H., Smith, J.G., and Foo, W.K., 1992, Iagifu/Hedinia Field, In Giant Oil and Gas Fields of the Decade, 1978–1988, AAPG Memoir 54, Halbouty, M.T., editor, Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, James, P.; Nadarajah, Y.; Haive, K. and Stead, V. (2012). Walking after dark is particularly dangerous in Port Moresby and other urban centres. The western half of New Guinea forms the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua. When the Dutch colonized this island as part of the Dutch East Indies, they called it Nieuw Guinea. In 1883, following a short-lived French annexation of New Ireland, the British colony of Queensland annexed south-eastern New Guinea. When world sea levels were low, the two shared shorelines (which now lie 100 to 140 metres below sea level),[11] and combined with lands now inundated into the tectonic continent of Sahul,[12][13] also known as Greater Australia. New Guinea’s western half comprises the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua and its eastern half comprises the major part of Papua New Guinea, an independent country since 1975. This is compared with 311.9 in 2008 and 476.3 in 1990. Sweet potato largely supplanted the previous staple, taro, and resulted in a significant increase in population in the highlands. Dense rainforests can be found in the lowland and coastal areas as well as very large wetland areas surrounding the Sepik and Fly rivers. It also became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations in its own right. The location of Papua New Guinea shown within the context of the entire continent. In some cultures, to get a bride, a groom must bring a certain number of golden-edged clam shells[107] as a bride price. Worship in PNG of Nations in its articles November 2014, the Philippines and Timor-Leste sent. 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