This article presents three distinct perspectives of the learning process (behavioral, cognitive, and constructivist) and although each has many unique features, it is our belief that each still describes the same phenomena (learning). Transfer refers to the application of learned knowledge in new ways or situations, as well as to how prior learning affects new learning. Behaviorism focuses on the importance of the consequences of those performances and contends that responses that are followed by reinforcement are more likely to recur in the future. By Tahmina Sultana. Depending on where the learners “sit” on the continuum in terms of the development of their professional knowledge (knowing what vs. knowing how vs. reflection-in-action), the most appropriate instructional approach for advancing the learners’ knowledge at that particular level would be the one advocated by the theory that corresponds to that point on the continuum. In behavioral learning theories, transfer is a result of generalization. Performance Assessment Quarterly, 6(4), 50–72. Review of Educational Research, 56, 411-436. As described by Reigeluth (1983, p. 5), the field of Instructional Design performs this role. To achieve this goal, two sets of skills and knowledge are needed. Psychologists and educators began to de-emphasize a concern with overt, observable behavior and stressed instead more complex cognitive processes such as thinking, problem solving, language, concept formation and information processing (Snelbecker, 1983). Cognitive theories contend that environmental “cues” and instructional components alone cannot account for all the learning that results from an instructional situation. Memory, as commonly defined by the layman, is not typically addressed by behaviorists. (1987). Mayer, R. E. (2009). Although the acquisition of “habits” is discussed, little attention is given as to how these habits are stored or recalled for future use. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 26 (2), 43-71. Forgetting is attributed to the “nonuse” of a response over time. Specific modules have been chosen from each of these theories. Constructivist. For example, trainees attending a workshop on effective management skills would be presented with information that is “sized” and “chunked” in such a way that they can assimilate and/or accommodate the new information as quickly and as easily as possible. The essay will compare and contrast how learning occurs in each theory, the roles of the teacher and the student, the curriculum and learning goals, and lastly, assessments. Polya, G. (1945). Kay, K. (2010). (Educational Broadcasting, 2004) Visual Overview of Behaviorism, Cognitivism, and Constructivism Teaching Without Technology. The answers to the last two questions will translate these differences into practical suggestions and recommendations for the application of these principles in the design of instruction. Cognitivism, with its emphasis on discrete facts and memory, is also a vital part of learning. Along with the development of the social sciences , psychologists and sociologists were interested in comprehending how people acquire knowledge and generate meaning. Thus, the ultimate measure of learning is based on how effective the learner’s knowledge structure is in facilitating thinking and performing in the system in which those tools are used. Through these types of cross-cultural collaborations, we all now have the opportunity to learn how to effectively communicate and interact with others from increasingly diverse backgrounds. Hulse, S. H., Egeth, H., & Deese, J. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2, 141-178. Forgetting is attributed to the “nonuse” of a response over time. Comparing and contrasting the learning of behaviorism and constructivism Learning is the relatively stable transformation in a personâ€™s conduct or conduct capability because of having particular experiences or having some internal changes (Huitt, 2011). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology. Another difference in cognitivism and constructivism is that cognitivism is not concerned with the willfulness, creativity, and autonomy of the learners that constructivism considers in its focus on the learning processes. Instructional designers have been charged with “translating principles of learning and instruction into specifications for instructional materials and activities” (Smith & Ragan, 1993, p. 12). As it has been noted from the beginning, constructivism learning theory is based on the idea that learning is a self-directed exercise. Indeed, our students will expect – no – they will demand it. Beginning with Aristotle (384-322 B.C. As the student gained more confidence and experience, (s)he would move into a collaborative phase of learning where discussion becomes crucial. Cognitive Psychology, 4, 55-81. Why this emphasis on learning theory and research? (2013). What Is Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge? Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 8(1), 17-27. Behaviorism, Cognitivism, and Cconstructivism Essay Topic: Personal Without going in to details, learning is” a permanent change in behavior.” (Burns, R, 1995) and can be gained through observation or interaction.These include behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism.In this paper we are going to comprise and have personal reactions. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 7(1), 4-9. "Behaviorism Cognitivism Constructivism Comparing" Essays and Research Papers . They leap around. Cognitive theories focus on the conceptualization of students’ learning processes and address the issues of how information is received, organized, stored, and retrieved by the mind. The goal of instruction is to map the structure of the world onto the learner (Jonassen, 1991b). We need the behaviorist’s triad of practice/reinforcement/feedback to enlarge learning and memory. Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Scenario: A high school social study teacher is planning a class on the Vietnam War. Video Games and the Future of Learning, 41. Behaviorism: The basis of Behaviorism lies on the fact that human behavior is decided by the experiences one has had as consequences to various similar actions. Johnson, J. K. (1992). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Educational Researcher, 18(1), 32-42. Cognitivist theory is that its perspective is a change in mental representations and associations brought about by experiences. What might be most effective for novice learners encountering a complex body of knowledge for the first time, would not be effective, efficient or stimulating for a learner who is more familiar with the content. The concise information presented here can serve as an initial base of knowledge for making important decisions regarding instructional objectives and strategies. More recent examples include principles utilized within computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and mastery learning. Both learner and environmental factors are critical to the constructivist, as it is the specific interaction between these two variables that creates knowledge. Educational Technology, 31(5), 18-23. Most cognitive psychologists think of the mind as a reference tool to the real world; constructivists believe that the mind filters input from the world to produce its own unique reaIity (Jonassen, 1991a). It is hoped that the answers to the first five questions will provide the reader with a basic understanding of how these viewpoints differ. Therefore, the goal of instruction is to accurately portray tasks, not to define the structure of learning required to achieve a task. Winne, P. H. (1985). It’s as though their cognitive structures were parallel, not sequential” (p. 3). USDLA Journal, 16(2). Al-Huneidi, A. M., & Schreurs, J. Karagiorgi, Y., & Symeou, L. (2005). The emphasis is not on retrieving intact knowledge structures, but on providing learners with the means to create novel and situation-specific understandings by “assembling” prior knowledge from diverse sources appropriate to the problem at hand. O’Reilly, T. (2005). 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