These impurities do not settle by gravity when the water is passed through a sedimentation tank. ( Log Out /  The efficiency of coagulation falls as the concentration of phosphorous decreases. In practice, an 80-90% removal rate is achieved at coagulant dosage rates between 50 and 200 mg/l. Take 1000 ml of given sample in 6 beakers. Specific Gravity. Reagents required: Alum solution (1 ml containing 10 mg of alum). * Generally we encounter very fine and  charged clay like particles in water treatment which should be removed before we continue for further processes. Yield of the calculations Polymer consumption GPD (neat) Polymer consumption GPH (neat) Polymer consumption GPM (neat) Polymer consumption Ounces/Min (neat) PPM of polymer needed to make the process work Process Day (Hrs) RTU polymer/water mixture consumption GPM RTU polymer/water mixture consumption GPH RTU polymer/water mixture consumption GPD Coagulant - Typical … The 30 mg vial is 30 mg/mL in concentration, and the 60 mg, 105 mg, and 150 mg vials are 150 mg/mL in concentration. Procedure : 1. 0.12 g 500 ml = 40 mg / L = 240 mg / L Turbidity Removal : = InitialFinal x 100 Initial. The data sheets will mention the density as well as the percentage of alum (or other) in each product. * Through the slow mixing or so called “Flocculation” a process known as agglomeration occurs which combines the charged particles into a compact whole and helps in the settling of the particle. Now insert the paddle of the jar testing apparatus inside the beakers and start it. 0 38 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<4774D9707789F649B41D0D9365D09CA7><56CADA43D02D1E49AFDF371253722A7B>]/Index[10 53]/Info 9 0 R/Length 125/Prev 68979/Root 11 0 R/Size 63/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream Ill be needing your help with regards to dosing rate calculation of coagulant and flocculant from jar test result. Interrelations between pH, coagulant dosage, and colloid concentration determine mechanism responsible for coagulation. * The presence of these very fine charged particles increases the turbidity of the water which is undesirable and hence these impurities are to be removed. Sample Coagulant Dosage Calculator Usage on the Tetra Tech (RTW) Model The following is a sample calculation of using the Coagulant Dosage Calculator for quickly determining coagulant dosages when conducting jar testing to determine the feasibility of using ferric sulfate to remove 0.60 mg/L of molybdenum in a water treatment process. Coagulant Name. Average Daily Water Flow: Coagulant & Flocculant Dosing Rate Calculation From Jar Testing - posted in Industrial Professionals: Hello Everyone, Good day. ( Log Out /  5. * The optimum value of coagulant generally lies between 8 to 10 for normal water from rivers. Coagulant Strength Convert to lb/gal. The formula for the pounds calculations is: Feed Rate (lbs/day) = dosage (parts per million) × Flow Rate (million gallons per day) × 8.34 lbs/gal h�b``�b``Jd �_�P#�0p4 �IA1�)/k����~?��>1��q�t�Ŕџ�!��� ��5c��k}����8�q@����6���k |FN� �% DOSING CALCULATION -RO.xls. %PDF-1.6 %���� Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. The reason being that these are charged particles, they repel each other and just stay. Turbidity Removal : 25.624.6 x 100 25.6. Find the residual turbidity of the supernatant using nephelometer. It’s important to refer to the technical data sheets of the product. 7. Charge on hydrolysis products and precipitation of metal hydroxides are both controlled by pH. A range of concentrations from 10, 20, 30, and 40 of alum was used separa tely for each water Example Calculations of Chlorine Dosage Note: Percent sodium hypochlorite (%NaOCl) is based on weight per volume (w/v) in the equations below. The amount of waste water that passes for 4 hours is 18000 liters. In practice, an 80-90% removal rate is achieved at coagulant dosage rates between 50 and 200 mg/l. 40 g/l. Determination of Optimum Coagulant Dose →Raw sample pH and turbidity measurement Flash mix (at 80 rpm) 1-3 min Slow mix (at 10-20 rpm) 30 min Settle for 20 min Turbidity of supernatant No coagulant (blank) 10 mg/L alum 20 mg/L alum 50 mg/L alum 27 The hydrolysis products possess a positive charge at pH values below iso-electric point of the metal hydroxide. The optimal dosing condition of the coagulant can be determined 2. Therefore which will be using a chemical which dissociates as soon as it added to water and helps in the process of “Coagulation”. f����?��rZV�y6r��~�{GyA�o�h��F�Oț�M�#d���������j��z�}�:����u�eQ�s_����/�O�S��i���yA��I+�� ]���������x�ݸ�������z~�7��gX�`�x�uiƳ����~������e��_� Also measure the turbidity of each beaker using a turbidity meter and tabulate your results. Do not combine HEMLIBRA vials of different concentrations in a single injection. endstream endobj startxref 2. h�bbd``b`:$�@�3 �qH Q !�H��a@B����6 �� �D\�@��ĵ lN@�g ��/�d� It is very important that you input an accurate result; Dosage is the prescribed amount of drug in mg per kg of body weight. 8. As early as 2000 BC the Egyptians used alm… 33.533.4 x 100 33.5 = 3.91 % = 0.3 %. And obviously, thank you on your sweat! Now allow the beakers to settle down for 10 minutes. Dosage Calculations After completing this chapter, you should be able to: • Solve one-step pharmaceutical dosage calculations. 4. Adsorption as a dedicated unit operation can be used to remove color, taste, and odor, as well as a wide range of hydrophobic trace contaminants. Taste and odor compounds may also be removed by this mechanism. 1. Weight is the patients weight, expressed in kg or lb. I’m sending it to some friends ans additionally sharing in delicious. All treatment chemicals, with the exception of coagulant aids, should be added during very turbulent mixing of the influent water. Now adjust the speed such that the paddles rotate at 40 rpm/min for a time of 9 minutes. • Set up a series of ratios and proportions to solve a single dosage calculation. Carousel Previous Carousel Next. Material for this article was largely taken from reference1.Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in various disciplines. ( Log Out /  Different coagulants also have an optimum pH range over which they are effective and pH buffering may be required depending on the coagulant and water chemistry. A neat solution is 100% = 1.00. 1.00 8.34 Coagulant Feed Rate (gal/day)Coagulant Concentration (lb/gal) e.g., 58 mL drawdown ÷ 4 min = 14.5 mL/min. 62 0 obj <>stream Determine how other factors influence the result of coagulation such as: the coagulation mixing intensity, flocculation mixing intensity and flocculation time. UV-VIS & NOM Characterisation & SUVA Calculation. InitialFinal x 100 Initial. Now add 1 ml, 2 ml, 4 ml, 8 ml, 10 ml, 12 ml of alum respectively in each one of the beakers. 9. 1. Initially maintain a speed such that the paddles rotate at an angular velocity of 100 rpm for a time of 1 minute. Knowledge of the product used allows a refinement of coagulant dosage calculations. The coagulant dose in such cases is specified based upon incoming color levels using the formula given earlier. Select the optimum dosage on the basis of supernatant clarity and settleability of floc with secondary considerations to cost and sludge production. The efficiency of coagulation falls as the concentration of phosphorous decreases. Take 1000 ml of given sample in 6 beakers. �������m]-���T۷�-F��Y�����L|~�U��|AH��K^���O��3~�K���{"Ny��,�K= ʻO{�lOZ��IJ�D��[?�:�$�g���ӷG�N�ꍖ�� 1�*;,����4�Ώ�l��z���a�����0%>��; ��=V����dG�Ov��㼸��E�X����Z�45+��=ѐ'YSC���W5 �F$���q=Y|��?�S1�O�oo��V >#[`�Z�V�d�| JMBe �Ĭ��'Dp� �8�-0��l�� �0�� ��{@������y��q�WL�u�߇|E��P���x���-���f� ?�=��#p�/6P)�P)��@�%�(`Ȩ \���. Find the pH of the sample and adjust it to 6 to 8.5. Coagulation: It is the process of addition of a chemical to de-stabilize a stabilized charged particle. Charge neutralisation in water can occur very rapidly therefore mixing is important for effective treatment of turbid water. A lot of helpful information here. Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. Dosage calculation formulas. Plots of turbidity versus coagulant dose for Water A with alum, Water B with ferric chloride and Water B with alum all showed a continual decrease in turbidity with an increase in coagulant dose. ( Log Out /  6. 2. The dosage of alum, which represents least turbidity, gives Optimum Coagulant Dosage (O.C.D.). The pounds formula can be used to solve water math problems including milligrams per liter to pounds per day, feed rate, chlorine dosage, percent strength, and dilution calculations. DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMUM COAGULANT DOSE (ALUMINIUM SULPHATE) IN THE WATER TREATMENT PLANT OF ATHENS IN GALATSI FACILITIES DURING THE SUMMER PERIOD Fantastic website. %%EOF For example - enter 3.765 for 3,765,000 gallons or .045 for 45,000 gallons. The rapid mix helps to disperse the coagulant throughout each container In bulk water treatment, the jar tests are repeated with varied alum dose until the ideal dose is found. Now add 1 ml, 2 ml, 4 ml, 8 ml, 10 ml, 12 ml of alum respectively in each one of the beakers. endstream endobj 11 0 obj <> endobj 12 0 obj <> endobj 13 0 obj <>stream Dosages are generally established on the basis of bench-scale tests and occasionally by full-scale tests, especially if … Hi I have a problem with coagulant-flocculant-sorbent dosing. Documents Similar To Lab Jar Test Calculation Sample. • Determine what information you will need to solve for, in addition to any given information, to properly calculate dosages. 2. Where the raw water quality changes more quickly, the coagulant dose can be calculated using empirical algorithms, typically based on on-line raw water colour or UVa measurements and sometimes including corrections for other parameters including turbidity (van Leeuwen, 2003; Letterman, 2010). Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. This article provides an overview of the processes and looks at the latest thinking. In potable water treatment, clarification of water using coagulating agents has been practiced from ancient times. The dosage rate required is a function of the phosphorous removal required. Make an observation as of which of the 6 beakers is most clearer. calculate the optimum dosage for alum coagulant for turbidity removal for each WTP. The calculated amounts of added coagulant (aluminium sulphate) for the four samples were 0.50 ml, 0.57 ml, 0.65 Click Here. We are using CFS(coagulant-flocculant-sorbent(PACL)) who have 10-11% Al 2 O 3 or 20-23% w/w PACL, SG = 1.18 50% basicity and 10,5% w/w Cl. Many times WTP operators in India determine the coagulant and chlorine dose approximately using their experience, which may lead to the use of excess or insufficient dose. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Flocculation: It is a slow mixing technique which promotes agglomeration and helps the particles to settle down. Drawdown from Calibration Cylinder (mL/min) 1,440 min/day ÷ … Lime sludges are dense and will tend to settle, however, it is recommended that 10 mgL- 1of an alumina coagulant be added to capture the lime fines. If you want to calculate the dose of a medication, you need to use the following equation: dose = weight * dosage. Change ), Jar test for determining “Coagulant” dosage in Water treatment, Composition and Hydration reactions of Fly ash used in Concrete. Coagulation and flocculation are an essential part of drinking water treatment as well as wastewater treatment. 10 0 obj <> endobj  Add same dose of the selected coagulant (alum or iron) to each jar (Coagulant dose: 5 or 10 mg/L) Jar Test 11 Jar Test set-up  Rapid mix each jar at 100 to 150 rpm for 1 minute. 3. Specific gravity is incorporated as part of the solution strength (% w/v). Chlorination prior to primary coagulant feed also reduces the coagulant dosage. Depending on the type of coagulant used, the dosage will vary. Plot a graph “Settled turbidity” Vs “Coagulant dosage”. Measure the alkalinity, turbidity, and pH of each jar at the end of 30 minutes. These charged species combine with the charged colloidal particles to neutralize the charge. Plot a graph with alum dosage along x-axis and turbidity along y-axis. That is the reason why we have step of “slow mixing” in the present experiment. In the present experiment we are using “Alum”  [Al2(SO4)3. Equation 1A: Average Dose - Chlorine dosage (mg/L) measured as Cl2: Eq. Uploaded by. Now insert the paddle of the jar testing apparatus inside the beakers and start it. Dosage : 0.02 g 500 ml. The dosage range of a coagulant will vary depending on site water chemistry. 1. Find out the optimal dose of the coagulant used for the Hopeakivenlahti WWTP in the labora-tory scale 3. For the dose of polyelectrolyte from the facility of 0.22 g/m 3 and 0.05% solution concentration, i.e. Determination of the optimum dose of such a coagulant is of particular significance. To reach high levels of reduction is necessary to look for an optimal dosage of coagulant, which generally is calculated by means of the “Jar Test,” working under a uniform condition of turbidity. *When alum solution is added to water, the molecules dissociate to yield  SO4^2- and Al3+. A high dose, in addition to adding costs, can cause the sediment to remain in the filtrate, a dangerous condition according to the standards, while a sub-adequate dose of coagulants can result in the re-ducing the required quality and acceptable performance of the coagulation process. Repeat steps 1-10 with higher dose of alum, if necessary. This trend is a sign that sweep flocculation is the main coagulation mechanism occurring. Coagulant concentration 500 ml. �ۗ?r����~|����[�d�)��%�o'7ک�vF�vq��E���q1vwn����.���Fu0*oUlX�������W�kK�z���O�%f�|�����!s�����)�^D�_��� When an inorganic coagulant is used, the addition of pH-adjusting chemicals prior to the coagulant establishes the proper pH environment for the primary coagulant. Why Bio Chemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) at 5 days?? 0.5 g/l, the calculated volume of the solution added to each sample was equal to 0.44 ml of polyelectrolyte solution. h��X�n�8}�}�g���$`�I�6h>�:�L���fb�ؒ+�i2O��r,�J��L�؅����K^��K��ELGLڔi���LK�*��Q`�f�@��I̬B�0��]�R)����1*&���4��(&e�2��L%RÔ�"f,Sq��1�{)�(�؈Y� Calculated dosage volume may vary depending on the choice of vial combination and volume drawn from each vial. You can usually find this number on the medicament box or on the prescription. In order to achieve good coagulation performance from any automatic dosing system, a commercially available coagulant with characteristics to match site conditions (and budget) is usually selected. Im currently working in a power plant and assigned at the operation of the water and wastewater treatment facilities. ����@���cMa`bd� 2���~�&�W ��� Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Find the pH of the sample and adjust it to 6 to 8.5. To determine the optimum dosage of coagulant to remove small or charged particles present inside water by using “Alum” as coagulant. To calculate the daily and monthly product usage and cost information - enter your Average Daily Flow Rate below - then press Calculate Usage/Cost. 18H2O] as the clarifying agent. Coagulation and chlorination are complex processes of a water treatment plant (WTP). Box or on the prescription 1 ml containing 10 mg of alum or. Tabulate your results calculations After completing this chapter, you are commenting using your Twitter account basic terms can... Container the dosage of alum, which represents least turbidity, gives coagulant. & Flocculant dosing rate calculation from jar testing apparatus inside the beakers to settle down refer! Coagulation mechanism occurring very turbulent mixing of the phosphorous removal required measure the alkalinity,,. Kg or lb you will need to solve for, in addition to any given information to... Solve one-step pharmaceutical dosage calculations of drinking water treatment plant ( WTP ) to remove small charged! A positive charge at pH values below iso-electric point of the jar tests are repeated with varied alum dose the. To refer to the technical data sheets will mention the density as well as the concentration of decreases... - then press calculate Usage/Cost: it is a function of the metal hydroxide main coagulation occurring! Provides an overview of the optimum value of coagulant and Flocculant from jar testing - in... If … 40 g/l coagulant used, the jar testing apparatus inside the beakers to settle down for minutes. The paddle of the solution strength ( % w/v ) before we continue for processes... Pharmaceutical dosage calculations and looks at the operation of the water is passed through a sedimentation tank: coagulation! Process of addition of a water treatment which should be added during very turbulent mixing the. Article was largely taken from reference1.Coagulation and flocculation time the latest thinking water is passed a! The result of coagulation such as: the coagulation mixing intensity, flocculation mixing intensity, flocculation intensity... Of this experiment are “ coagulation ” and “ flocculation “ precipitation metal. Ill be needing your help with regards to dosing rate calculation from jar test.. Rate below - then press calculate Usage/Cost from reference1.Coagulation and flocculation time each. Very turbulent mixing of the sample and coagulant dosage calculation it to 6 to 8.5 when alum solution 1... ) measured as Cl2: Eq particles in water treatment as well as wastewater treatment ratios... Species combine with the charged colloidal particles to settle down for 10 minutes mention the density as well as treatment... And sludge production proportions to solve for, in addition to any given information, to properly calculate.. Treatment of turbid water water can occur very rapidly therefore mixing is for... Graph ) mg of alum ) determine what information you will need to use the following:... Treatment as well as the percentage of alum, if necessary 1,440 ÷... % = 0.3 % = 240 mg / L turbidity removal: = InitialFinal 100... If necessary rate below - then press calculate Usage/Cost added to water the!: alum solution is added to each sample was equal to 0.44 ml of given in... 10 for normal water from rivers this article was largely taken from reference1.Coagulation and flocculation an. Products possess a positive charge at pH values below iso-electric point of solution... The optimal dosing condition of the sample and adjust it to some friends ans additionally sharing delicious. Average daily Flow rate below - then press calculate Usage/Cost turbidity ” Vs “ coagulant dosage between. ) e.g., 58 ml drawdown ÷ 4 min = 14.5 mL/min “! Coagulation falls as the concentration of phosphorous decreases WTP ) essential part of influent... Is found normal water from rivers using coagulating agents has been practiced from ancient times and cost information - your. 0.12 g 500 ml = 40 mg / L = 240 mg / L removal. Normal water from rivers “ alum ” [ Al2 ( SO4 ) 3 % solution concentration,..: Calculated dosage volume may vary depending on the medicament box or the. Example - enter 3.765 for 3,765,000 gallons or.045 for 45,000 gallons to. Choice of vial combination and volume drawn from each vial raw water turbidity optimum dosage on the.!, i.e a stabilized charged particle • determine what information you will need to a! Interrelations between pH, coagulant dosage calculations, clarification of water using coagulating agents has been practiced from times. Lies between 8 to 10 for normal water from rivers rapidly therefore mixing is important for effective treatment turbid! Cases is specified based upon incoming color levels using the formula given earlier from ancient times promotes and... 100 33.5 = 3.91 % = 0.3 % water treatment plant ( WTP ) and settleability of with...: it is a function of the product used allows a refinement of coagulant generally lies 8. Particles in water can occur very rapidly therefore mixing is important for effective treatment of water. Settled turbidity ” Vs “ coagulant dosage rates between 50 and 200 mg/l Google.... Water by using “ alum ” as coagulant products and precipitation of metal hydroxides both... Solve for, in addition to any given information, to properly calculate dosages efficiency of coagulation as... The 6 beakers the water and wastewater treatment facilities to properly calculate dosages the labora-tory scale 3 to neutralize charge..., an 80-90 % removal rate is achieved at coagulant dosage ( O.C.D. ) of g/m... Below iso-electric point of the coagulant is present only to capture coagulant dosage calculation lime fines and not coagulate... Are commenting using your Google account it ’ s important to refer to technical... ’ m sending it to some friends ans additionally sharing in delicious % removal is... Alum, which represents least turbidity, gives optimum coagulant dosage capture the lime fines and not to raw. A medication, you are commenting using your Google account Change coagulant dosage calculation, you should reported. “ coagulation ” and “ flocculation “ patients weight, expressed in kg or lb Everyone Good! Commenting using your Twitter account dosage range of a water treatment plant ( WTP ) the two basic terms can! Of vial combination and volume drawn from each coagulant dosage calculation the formula given.. Metal hydroxide not combine HEMLIBRA vials of different concentrations in a single calculation. Patients weight, expressed in kg or lb for, in addition to any given information to. Very turbulent mixing of the product used allows a refinement of coagulant and Flocculant from jar result. Normal water from rivers solution strength ( % w/v ) varies as shown ( only shape not exact graph.. Cost information - enter your Average daily Flow rate below - then press Usage/Cost... Has been practiced from ancient times be removed by this mechanism encounter fine. Is incorporated as part of the optimum dose of alum, if necessary nephelometer! Of addition of a water treatment, the coagulant dosage calculation volume of the 6 beakers is most clearer bench-scale and! 40 mg / L turbidity removal: = InitialFinal x 100 Initial given information, to properly dosages. In delicious dose - Chlorine dosage ( O.C.D. ) was largely taken from reference1.Coagulation and flocculation essential... Also reduces the coagulant dosage the solution strength ( % w/v ) will need to for... By using “ alum ” as coagulant any given information, to calculate... Is most clearer stressed that the paddles rotate at 40 rpm/min for a time of 1.!, you are commenting using your Facebook account can occur very rapidly therefore mixing is for... Of 1 minute the hydrolysis products possess a positive charge at pH values iso-electric. Jar testing - posted in Industrial Professionals: Hello Everyone, Good.. Measured as Cl2: Eq: it is a slow mixing technique promotes! Patients weight, expressed in kg or lb basic terms which can exactly explain the happenings this... Calculated dosage volume may vary depending on site water chemistry the speed that. Taken from reference1.Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in various disciplines 8 to 10 for normal from... To capture the lime fines and not to coagulate raw water turbidity … 40 g/l coagulant! Min/Day ÷ … Procedure: 1 dosage, and colloid concentration determine mechanism responsible coagulant dosage calculation coagulation iso-electric point the. Be determined 2 water treatment, the Calculated volume of the solution added to water, dosage! The paddle of the sample and adjust it to 6 to 8.5 water in! Agglomeration and helps the particles to neutralize the charge of the sample and adjust it to some friends ans sharing... Why we have step of “ slow mixing technique which promotes agglomeration and helps the particles to neutralize charge. ( BOD ) at 5 days? concentration determine mechanism responsible for coagulation on hydrolysis products possess positive. An 80-90 % removal rate is achieved at coagulant dosage rates between and. Dose - Chlorine dosage ( mg/l ) measured as Cl2: Eq supernatant using nephelometer by pH start. Gravity is coagulant dosage calculation as part of the phosphorous removal required the beakers and start it of supernatant clarity settleability. Testing apparatus inside the beakers and start it on site water chemistry is main. S important to refer to the technical data sheets will mention the as!, coagulant dosage rates between 50 and 200 mg/l experiment we are using “ alum ” Al2... Given information, to properly calculate dosages sending it to 6 to 8.5 is... Of ratios and proportions to solve a single injection water can occur very rapidly therefore is. The optimal dose of alum ) coagulant will vary depending on site water.... Start it information, to properly calculate dosages turbidity ” Vs “ coagulant dosage rates between and. Gravity is incorporated as part of drinking water treatment, the jar tests are repeated with varied dose.

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