In 2014, Guillermo Antonio Arriaz Martínez applied the theory based on the treatment of the data collected in his graduate degree work. Patients also needed time to incorporate home care activities and more frequent visits to dentists into their daily routines. This may be in part because there are few practical examples of grounded theory in use in the literature. Although there are “probably as many versions of grounded theory as there were grounded theorists” (Dey, 1999), all of the versions have the following aspects in common (Charmaz, 2006): In order to say that your research is based in grounded theory you must follow the explicit, sequential guidelines. For this reason, we added new questions for the interviews in Dental Practice 2 to directly investigate "effectiveness", "evidence" and how dentists took up new technologies in their practice. 2005, 67 (4): 837-857. How to do a grounded theory study: a worked example of a study of dental practices. Developing Grounded Theory: The Second Generation. Adaptation occurred over time and involved practical, historical and philosophical aspects of dental care. 10.1177/1468794107078515. 10.1177/1049732305285972. approach, whereas grounded theory is an example of an inductive research approach. This question was the starting point for our grounded theory study. BMJ. Aust Dent J. et al. As in any ethical study, we ensured that participation was voluntary, that participants could withdraw at any time, and that confidentiality was protected. This paper provides a detailed explanation of how a study evolved using grounded theory methodology (GTM), one of the most commonly used methodologies in qualitative health and medical research [[8], p47]. Agresti A. We describe our sampling, data collection, data analysis and interpretation. However the limitations associated with the sampling, validity, reliability and bias seem to raise concerns among scholars about the reliance on it as a tool of qualitative investigation. PubMed Google Scholar. $43.65. This was expressed in both diagrams and memos, was built around a core set of focused codes, and illustrated relationships between them. We indicated that we would make future applications to modify our protocols. Espelid I, Tveit A, Haugejorden O, Riordan P: Variation in radiographic interpretation and restorative treatment decisions on approximal caries among dentists in Norway. statement and These researchers deal with hypothesising and detail analysis at one and the same time. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. Below are the links to the authors’ original submitted files for images. Dentists talked about "unreliable" patients - that is, patients who were too unreliable to have preventive dental care offered to them. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 2004, 9 (1): 113-126. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Table 3 illustrates one of those memos. Our analysis had shifted our focus: rather than simply studying the process of implementing the evidence-based preventive protocols, we were studying the process of doing prevention in private dental practice. In writing Basics of Grounded theory Analysis (Sociology Press, 1992), it became obvious to me that what was needed by the myriad of Grounded Theory readers and users throughout die world was a book of examples of grounded theory papers and chapters. CAS  Qual Res. In grounded theory studies, theoretical sampling occurs as the data collection progresses. See this blog post for some great examples of these coding types. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2: 143-152. This purposive sample was designed to provide maximum variation in patients' adoption of preventive dental care. Axial coding is used to create conceptual families from the summaries, followed by selective coding which turns the families into a formal framework with a variable that includes all of the collected data. Because this process seemed central to their practice, and because it was talked about often, we decided that seeking out evidence should become a focused code. Because our aim was to understand the process of implementing the protocols, including the conditions and consequences of variation in the process, we needed to understand how implementation might fail. Figure 1 illustrates the steps taken during the project that will be described below from points A to F. Study design. Coding is essential to the development of a grounded theory [15]. Correspondence to The MPP tested whether dentists could increase their use of preventive techniques. 2. Free shipping . We used these memos to record our thinking about the meaning of codes and to record our thinking about how and when processes occurred, how they changed, and what their consequences were. According to Charmaz [[15], p46], 'coding is the pivotal link between collecting data and developing an emergent theory to explain these data. Curtis B, Evans RW, Sbaraini A, Schwarz E: The Monitor Practice Programme: is non-surgical management of tooth decay in private practice effective?. Grounded theory and ethnography are similar designs and approaches to research questions. BMJ. Pitts NB: Are we ready to move from operative to non-operative/preventive treatment of dental caries in clinical practice?. As noted, there are few examples of 'how to do' grounded theory in the literature [18, 19]. We wanted to compare dentists' perspectives with the perspectives of the patients themselves. Google Scholar. For example, asking a juvenile offender to describe his or her early experiences can serve as a grand tour question and establish a rapport. Writing case-based memos right after each interview while being in the field allowed the researcher/interviewer to capture initial ideas and make comparisons between participants' accounts. For this reason, we theoretically sampled participants from Dental Practice 2, where uptake of the MPP protocols had been very limited according to data from the RCT trial. Our aim is to provide a model for practice, to connect medical researchers with a useful methodology, and to increase the quality of 'grounded theory' research published in the medical literature. 10.1111/j.1834-7819.2007.00004.x. Google Scholar. Founded on the seminal 1967 book 'The Discovery of Grounded Theory' [12], the grounded theory tradition is now diverse and somewhat fractured, existing in four main types, with a fifth emerging. Dentists were asked to select "reliable" and "unreliable" patients to be interviewed. 2006, 16: 547-559. AS carried out data collection, analysis, and interpretation of data. Grounded Theory Reader by G?nter Mey. Please post a comment on our Facebook page. Riordan P, Espelid I, Tveit A: Radiographic interpretation and treatment decisions among dental therapists and dentists in Western Australia. Categories are integrated into a theoretical framework. So, by sampling dentists from both intervention and control group from the previous MPP study, we aimed to confirm or disconfirm the broader reach of our emerging theory and to complete inductive development of key concepts. Alexandra Sbaraini. We wanted to answer a practical social problem: how do dentists persist in drilling and filling early stages of tooth decay, when they could be applying preventive care? 1996, 25: 5-16. Google Scholar. We explain how these steps were consistent with grounded theory methodology, and show how they related to one another. Our detailed explanation of our experience in this grounded theory study is intended to provide, vicariously, the kind of 'experience' that might help other qualitative researchers in medicine and health to apply and benefit from grounded theory methodology in their studies. Espelid I: Radiographic diagnoses and treatment decisions on approximal caries. Phone interviews had similar length and depth compared to the face to face interviews, but allowed for a greater range of participation. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. We also returned to Practice 1 to ask participants about the idea of an "unreliable" patient. PubMed  We modified our interview schedule again to include questions about this concept (see Additional file 3) leading to another round of ethics approvals. PubMed  Featherstone JDB: The caries balance: The basis for caries management by risk assessment. 1985, 13: 26-29. 2006, London: Sage, Clarke AE: Situational Analysis. After the researcher identifies the research topic and question, they identify a small handful of people to interview based on a set of criteria (much like in purposeful sampling). 3. A concrete example of one of our final key concepts is the process of "adapting to" prevention. Google Scholar. Bowers B, Schatzman L: Dimensional Analysis. Our aim is to provide a model for practice, to connect medical researchers with a useful methodology, and to increase the quality of 'grounded theory' research published in the medical literature. Article  | Example for Grounded Theory ~ read more We developed a detailed model of the process of adapting preventive protocols into dental practice, and analysed the variation in this process in different dental practices. Caries Res. Qual Health Res. All responses were anonymised before analysis, and we took particular care not to reveal potentially identifying details of places, practices or clinicians. BMJ. Pitts NB: Monitoring of caries progression in permanent and primary posterior approximal enamel by bitewing radiography: A review. Through coding, you define what is happening in the data and begin to grapple with what it means'. 2001, 322: 1115-1117. Soc Sci Med. BMC Med Res Methodol 11, 128 (2011). 2009, Walnut Creek, CA, USA: Left Coast Press, 86-125. 4. Grounded theory is deemed as an effective means of gathering in-depth information from the sample, which can be used in the development of theoretical constructs to explain a particular behavior, event, perspective etc. Application for adults. The increasing popularity of qualitative methodologies for medical research has led to an increasing awareness of formal qualitative methodologies. 4.3.1 Theoretical Sensitivity and Sensitizing Concepts The MPP included 22 private dental practices in NSW, randomly allocated to either the intervention or control group. In our application, we explained grounded theory procedures, in particular the fact that they evolve. Barbour R: Checklists for improving rigour in qualitative research: A case of the tail wagging the dog?. file containing questions added to the initial interview schedule (DOC 26 KB), Additional file 3: Questions added to the modified interview schedule for dentists and dental practice staff. We managed this process as follows. Didactic situations in the virtual scenario: a view of mathematics education from the grounded theory . 2008, 53: 83-92. Coding (labeling and categorizing) from collected data instead of relying on theories not grounded in data. 1992, Mill Valley CA, USA: Sociology Press, Corbin J, Strauss AL: Basics of qualitative research. 1995, 311: 182-, CAS  Our initial research questions were: What was the process of implementing (or not-implementing) the protocols (from the perspective of dentists, practice staff, and patients)? This was a purposive sampling strategy, to give us the best possible access to the process of successfully implementing the protocols. After a few interviews, the interviewer/researcher also began making and recording comparisons among these memos. (DOC 30 KB), Additional file 2: Questions added to the initial interview schedule for dentists and dental practice staff. Kuper A, Reeves S, Levinson W: Qualitative research: an introduction to reading and appraising qualitative research. Emergence vs Forcing. 2004, 4 (1): 107-18. 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2004.00563.x. California Privacy Statement, 2002, 47: 138-141. By using this website, you agree to our CAS  SMC made substantial contribution during data collection, analysis and data interpretation. The following points describe what was crucial for this study to achieve quality. 3. J Clin Periodontol. All researchers supported analysis activities; a regular meeting of the research team was convened to discuss and contextualize emerging interpretations, introducing a wide range of disciplinary perspectives. Detailed analysis records were kept; which made it possible to write this explanatory paper. The theory is “grounded” in actual data, which means the analysis and development of theories happens after you have collected the data. We know that preventive techniques can arrest early tooth decay and thus reduce the need for fillings [28–32]. 1. We hope that our explanation will assist others to avoid using grounded theory as an 'approving bumper sticker' [10], and instead use it as a resource that can greatly improve the quality and outcome of a qualitative study. This grounded theory study builds on a previous Australian Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) called the Monitor Dental Practice Program (MPP) [27]. 2. volume 11, Article number: 128 (2011) After our initial data collection and analysis, we used theoretical sampling (see Table 1) to determine who to sample next and what questions to ask during interviews. Two initial interview schedules were designed for each group of participants: 1) dentists and dental practice staff and 2) dental patients. WJNR. Blumer H: Symbolic interactionism: perspective and method. Interviews were semi-structured and based loosely on the research questions. Sarker S, Lau F, Sahay S: Using an adapted grounded theory approach for inductive theory about virtual team development. $37.97. 10.1111/j.1600-0528.1985.tb00414.x. We have presented the developing theory to specialist dental audiences and to the participants, and have found that it was accepted by and resonated with these audiences. We hoped that such understanding would help us to see how the norms of Australian private dental practice as regards to tooth decay could be moved away from drilling and filling and towards evidence-based preventive care. The Qualitative Report. This code captured the social process that dentists went through when faced with new information or a practice challenge. file containing questions added to the modified interview schedule (DOC 26 KB), Examples of Grounded Theory : A Reader: Glaser, Barney G.: Selecteer uw cookievoorkeuren We gebruiken cookies en vergelijkbare tools om uw winkelervaring te verbeteren, onze services aan te bieden, te begrijpen hoe klanten onze services gebruiken zodat we verbeteringen kunnen aanbrengen, en om advertenties weer te geven. Categories are refined using theoretical sampling. However, it’s use isn’t limited to qualitative studies; it is a general method that can be applied to many areas of research. Developed by sociologists Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss at the University of Sydney could their... Popularity of qualitative research: a worked example of using grounded theory was conduit... Practice? iterative and evolving, aiming to construct new theory from data, initial! Management of dental practices underwent a slow process of theoretical sampling, we selected the practice in which most. Return visit, patient interviews were digitally recorded, professionally transcribed in detail and transcripts!, R.W, ( eds data that accounts for those data the grounded theory is use! Have been involved in drafting the manuscript and revising it critically for important intellectual content PubMed Central Google,... The British medical Journal have published series about qualitative methodology ( 1995 and 2008 ) [,... About virtual team development, historical and philosophical aspects of dental caries: scientific and practical.... Practical considerations example of grounded theory JM, Wilson KL: Problematics of grounded theory researchers are simultaneous inductive-deductive thinkers PubMed Central... We reminded the Committee that our study design: are we ready to move from operative non-operative/preventive... 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From early data what are the links to the face to face interviews and 10 telephone to! Flexible, it was discovered that practices in NSW, randomly allocated to either the intervention arm were not the... Dental practice 1 ) dentists and practice staff interviews were done in one week:... Transcripts are coded line by line, open coding: read through data several times, creating for! Guillermo Antonio Arriaz Martínez applied the theory based on the research questions unfortunately, dentists... 'Adapting to ' those protocols in practice and what patients valued when to... Questions, as described by Charmaz [ 15 ] questions about what kind of services should... 33–37 ] preventive dental care offered to them ) travelled to a rural in. Questions for the purpose of collecting specific data needed to fill in the preference centre the more.... Ajjawi R. 2010, practice, education, the interviewer/researcher ( as ) travelled to a rural in. 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