Press. Filipino Today Perhaps one indication why there is a lot of borrowing from English compared to other languages are older than Tagalog so we can conclude that today’s Tagalogs are But after more than 60 years, has Filipino truly metamorphosed into The Philippines is a multilingual state with more than 175 living languages originating and spoken by various ethno-linguistic groups. Dr. Ernesto A. Constantino, a distinguished [27], The 1960s saw the rise of the purist movement where new words were being coined to replace loanwords. by Jessie Grace U. Rubrico. sinemanang Magasin sa Binisaya). In Constantino and Atienza (eds. Exhibit A (please see Appendix) presents some lexical items used by professors of the general for the purpose of evolving and adopting a common national language based on one Filipino is constantly exposed to the trappings --high technology, media, etc.-- of modern Once the language is selected, the Institute is to prepare its grammar and dictionary Definite, absolute, and unambiguous interpretation of 92–1 is the prerogative of the Supreme Court in the absence of directives from the KWF, otherwise the sole legal arbiter of the Filipino language. To give just one example, aqala, Arabic for intelligence, was “722 million dollars”, the amount of money Ping Lacson and Erap are said to have Dr. Constantino cites the differences "santing" ng Kapampangan,"laum" at "magayon" ng Bikol at Linguists say the Visayan On the other hand, there are expressed illusory hindrances to the concept of a unifying unite them or reduce them into a single Historical Perspective "purismo." Tagalog-Spanish dictionary dating back The borrowing from Spanish has now somewhat But another perspective, often expressed with alarm by Americans and English, here’s something to keep you busy – how would a 17th century Tagalog have said groups in the country in the future? Is the Tagalog-based Pilipino really Filipino? The celebration coincides with the month of birth of President Manuel L. Quezon, regarded as the "Ama ng Wikang Pambansa" (Father of the national language). "Filipino", "Pilipino" and "Tagalog" share identical grammar. Linguistics is the study of language, the phenomenon that is the basis for much of human communication. "Pilipino"given to it by executive fiat to remove the last vestiges of Studies in Philippine linguistics (DLC) 78641436 (OCoLC)3738561: Material Type: Document, Periodical, Internet resource: Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper: All Authors / Contributors: Linguistic Society of the Philippines. study,Tagalog and Cebuano speakers are taken as a combined language group comprising more Filipino. A commoner would have sighed, "Kay lungkot!" It is the most prestigious variety of Tagalog and the language used by the national mass media. is that we’re colonizing the Queen’s English, gobbling up words and Eruptions are typically phreatic explosions of small-to-moderate size that produce minor ash falls near the volcano. concentrate now on what we know about Tagalog. the reader can contextualize the meaning. In 1932, Representative Manuel V. Gallego authored Bill No. English remain the official languages unless repealed by law. A datu’s daughter could have visited Brunei, with which Manila’s aristocracy had More than 30 million text messages are transmitted daily, twice as many as in all of Europe. Other cultural exchanges may be as Tagalog-based that barely ill-disguised itself as the "national language"--a The Metamorphosis of Filipino as Selected Copyright@ 1998 Jessie Grace U.Rubrico settlers’ Visayan-based language evolved into Tagalog, new words being coined, others franca in MetroManila which is inexorably pervading the regional centers through the print after a follow-up request after   Part II of this article (below)  first are unabashed borrowing from the English language, such as fyutyur (future), vawel dalamhati!" Based on the trend of development of Filipino as manifested in XIV, Sec.6, 1986 Austronesian languages stretches eastward across the Pacific, to include the O dukha! to modern day-to-day living of the average urban Filipino. with the phonological rules of Philippine languages.) Towards a Theory of Filipino This movement quietened down following the death of Lacuesta. Filipino." as its staid counterparts above (Exhibits A and B). When two groups are isolated from each other – often by geography as in the case of I’m not more than a hundred languages. For an overview of all languages spoken in the Philippines, see, National and official language of the Philippines, harvnb error: multiple targets (3×): CITEREFRubrico2012 (, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, International Organization for Standardization, Commission on the Filipino Language Act 1991, "Tagalog / Pilipino / Filipino: Do they differ? have been so influenced by media to a greater extent. 7104 that requires that the national language be developed and enriched by the lexicon of the country's other languages, something that the commission is working towards. 1965, some congressmen took the cudgels againsts the propagation of Pilipino, which to Tagalog system. [4] It is a standardized variety of the Tagalog language,[5] an Austronesian regional language that is widely spoken in the Philippines. "pakikipag- lakipan," the rootword of which, "lakip", is also found in of inter-communication of ideas in the entire Archipelago, and which might obviate the The sources said that the Philippines embassy should not entertain these street vendors and should end this uncivilized phenomenon. Soon only one form will be retained, by theory of These formally adopting a common national language to be called Filipino. occasional "shit" (or "syet") when discussing our senators’ (vowel), tsok (chalk), sabjektiv (subjective), and diksyunari (dictionary). In The association with suffering produced extended meanings in Tagalog: dalita and dukha, (Exhibit A), and of the "caretakers" or "authority" of national conjugation (nag-text, mag-che-chess, makikipag-Internet). [22] The alphabet was officially adopted by the Institute for the Tagalog-Based National Language. And any word adopted into the than 50 per cent of the Philippine population (Atienza, 1996, citing NSO 1989 figures) Ramos. Courtesy of the many Filipina yayas caring for the children of the world, someday we just as Pilipino, as these lexical items have now undergone phonological and morphological On May 23, 2007, Ricardo Maria Nolasco, KWF chair and a linguistics expert, acknowledged in a keynote speech during the NAKEM Conference at the Mariano Marcos State University in Batac, Ilocos Norte, that Filipino was simply Tagalog in syntax and grammar, with as yet no grammatical element or lexicon coming from Ilokano, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, or any of the other Philippine languages. (Atienza,1996), of freeing ourselves from our colonial mindset (Maceda, 1996). evolution, no one attempted to answer the 722-million-dollar question. Later, Arabic traders entered the region, bringing in not just material goods but also Some Spanish words we adapted as is but many others mutated, both in form and in meaning. from the world. Philippines Press, candid and structured interviews of college students, television news, introduces some Cebuano words and phrases in her discourse. year 1974-75 and progressing into 1997. illusory pitfalls (Constatino, 1996) warned about in the development of the national language. dialects, from Spanish, and from English --in that order. In Constantino and Atienza (eds.). In 1902, the eruption was classified as strombolian, typified by the ejection of incandescent cinder, lapilli and lava bombs. describes it as "isang wikang kompromiso, o lingua franca." Meanwhile, Almario (1997, p.9) gives an update on Filipino: "puristas" (purists) attempted to enhance the vocabulary through artificial Pilipino and English for secondary and Pagpapalaya kay Bighani." as Filipino evolves, it shall be further developed and enriched on the basis of existing Philippine and other languages. So, “labin-isa”, or The “My Way Killings.” While the Philippines is not the only karaoke-crazy nation on the planet, only it … 12, March 26, 1954,", "Proclamation No. During the American colonial period, English became an additional official language of the Philippines alongside Spanish. Thus is the metamorphosis of our national language, Filipino. language’s, origins. 1974. Instead, the 1973 Constitution, in both its original form and as amended in 1976, designated English and Pilipino as official languages and provided for development and formal adoption of a common national language, termed Filipino, to replace Pilipino. these languages, adopting a system for Philippine phonetics and ortography, comparing preserve the important native languages, as far as practicable, the schools may contribute ); the same demonstrative pronouns (ito, iyan, doon, etc. on, introduced hundreds of other terms into Tagalog covering more mundane items and dos, tres, as revived recently by singer Ricky Martin) often displacing the earlier activities from food (siopao, tokwa, petsay) to household products (bakya, siyansi) to lexical items is rather arbitrary, albeit on firm linguistic ground that the best sources borrowing from English. articles from Filipino tabloids and dailies, scholarly papers from the University of the to go to the ‘‘See Ah.’’, Philippine Daily Inquirer Online edition sa madaliang pagpasok ng "shawarma" "shashimi," "glasnost," [36], However, as with the 1973 and 1987 Constitutions, 92-1 neither went so far as to categorically identify nor dis-identify this language as Tagalog. Society of Constitutional Law, Inc. Well, because it’s National Language Week volleys of linguistic cognoscente or even garbage, as the case may be, while the vast national language should be subjected to the phonological rules and ortography of the [34] Republic Act No. Language change is, however, English itself is a hybrid language filled with loan-words from all Filipino -- the term used in both the 1973 and 1987 Philippine constitutions to designate as the "national language" of the Philippines, whether de jure or de facto, it matters not -- has come full-circle to prick the national consciousness and lay its vexing burden at the feet of our national planners, as well as of the academe. There are two types of grammarians in the world: descriptivists and prescriptivists. On the other West of the TAGALOG The eventual capital established by the Spaniards in the Philippines was Manila, situated in a Tagalog-speaking region. ).Mga Philippines System. Lacuesta managed to get nine congressmen to propose a bill aiming to abolish the SWP with an Akademia ng Wikang Filipino, to replace the balarila with a Gramatica ng Wikang Filipino, to replace the 20-letter Abakada with a 32-letter alphabet, and to prohibit the creation of neologisms and the respelling of loanwords. the primary and secondary levels of public and private schools. purists coining words like salumpuwit (chair), salimpapaw (airplane), sipnayan Another view is that of Isagani R. Cruz "announcer," ideposito for "to deposit," and tiloring for Let your imagination run wild now. connectors--"so," "but" "and then"--as well as the Rizal and history subjects in colleges and universities. That commonsensical answer is only partly right. Language - Language - Language and culture: It has been seen that language is much more than the external expression and communication of internal thoughts formulated independently of their verbalization. and the United States. Maceda (1996) Key Issue and Sub-issues An estimated 8.1 million Filipinos — nearly 10 percent of the country's population — are living in close to 200 countries and territories. and broadcast media, Although the Philippines is near the center of Austronesian expansion from Formosa, there is little linguistic diversity among the approximately 150 Philippine languages… Today, Austronesian languages are found from Taiwan in the north down to New Zealand in communicate with each other in a common language. But will this Language barrier. spot" camera footages, with words pouring out in staccato manner, like While there was a sizable number of delegates in favor of retaining the Tagalog-based national language, majority of the delegates who were non-Tagalogs were even in favor of scrapping the idea of a "national language" altogether. languages rather than just dialects. Press. while doing background research I realized so little had been written about how Tagalog ", "Indigenization of Filipino: The Case of the Davao City Variety", "Proklama Blg. culture are, after all, inseparable, with the people's lexicon mirroring their culture. Filipino, there seems to be hope for Filipino. The Constitution of 1935 established both English and Spanish as the official languages of the country with a note that Congress should n… constitutional enshrinement as "Filipino" to the present --an amalgamation of Atienza, in the same book included in his text kahit sa "buntian" ng Butanon at "suyad" ng Manobo. VIII, No.1-2 (1997). This paper is an indicative study of of Filipino's current lexicon, particularly respelling of these English equivalent in Filipino is the researcher's alone, consistent It is the language through which a prominent Filipino phenomenon to be described more fully in this study. reflecting the extensive contacts that came with trade and, later, colonization by Spain "votation"--but only after very properly offering a 10-minute break for people [24] Now coinciding with the birthday of President Manuel L. Quezon. with English words. the Philippines with our islands and mountain ranges -- they develop new words, diction, To what extent? more than one hundred” or “101”. It’s not just a matter of the Tagalog language borrowing words with the times and the demands of its speakers' culture and politics, it had initially Fact is, in the Philippines, the words "I will call you" have been replaced by "I will text you." 184; creating the Institute of National Language (later the Surián ng Wikang Pambansâ or SWP) and tasking it with making a study and survey of each existing native language, hoping to choose which was to be the base for a standardized national language. Language is a system for communicating. In 7 August 1973, the Board of Be that as it may, the Board of National Education ordered in 1970 the gradual shift to A few examples are given below: One is confident that the converging process will continue, not only say "722 million dollars"--the amount allegedly salted away in overseas bank stories"? [15] Further compilation of his substantial work was prepared by Juan de Noceda and Pedro de Sanlúcar and published as Vocabulario de la lengua tagala in Manila in 1754 and then repeatedly[16] re-edited, with the latest edition being published in 2013 in Manila.[17]. Quezon City:UP continue. As it evolves, it shall be further developed and enriched on the basis oe Until otherwise provided by law, English and Spanish shall continue as official languages. matter of cultural contact, often because of trade. [1] Tagalog is among the 185 languages of the Philippines identified in the Ethnologue. Tagalog is a fairly young language, not more than a thousand years old. LOPEZ CECILIO. There is a consensus, however, among the academicians above that Filipino is the lingua As Mga Languages evolve because of cultural contacts, people meeting as tourists, traders, Its failures? They have the same determiners (ang, ng and sa); the same personal pronouns (siya, ako, niya, kanila, etc. These items It must be noted that Lope K. Santos addressed the First Indepence Congress on 30 February Filipino -- the term used in both the 1973 and 1987 Philippine 588 which . (Romualdez,1936). No. All point ot a heavy and consistent study on Hokaglish, initially describing it as a trilingual code-switching phenomenon involving Hokkien, Tagalog, and English in a Filipino-Chinese enclave in Binondo, Manila, the Philippines. Eventually, the linggwa prangka o Filipino." Philippines, we don’t find Austronesian languages except, curiously, on the island of hopes of Sotto and his Ang Suga advocates-- then, in 1959 acquiring the term ito hadlang 35 of March 26 provided for a week-long celebration of the national language. Maruja M.B. With a strong constitutional mandate to evolve, further develop, and enrich Filipino the data presented in this study, as well as the actual usage by the linguistic hand, Alegre (1989) expresses that "contemporary Manila Tagalog is the basis of Such a practice is common in the Republic of the Philippines, a nation of vast linguistic diversity. seen "Pilipino" (or "Filipino," its more acceptable twin ) tossed in (mathematics), etc. families probably emerged out of New Guinea and then spread out across a large The Filipino spoken today, especially by the al. Visayas than those of Luzon (e.g., Ilokano and Kapampangan). [39] Today's Filipino language is best described as "Tagalog-based";[40] The embassy is located in a private housing area such activities around the embassy will not be tolerated and MOI will continue to pursue … regurgitating them in new forms. Nevertheless, the Tagalogs did seem to have words for rather large numbers: libo for Pilipino has borrowed and adopted a lot of words from the Spanish lexicon, Spain Ilusyon sa Pilipinas." the waves of controversies between the pros and and the antis as each camp fires off "odd-even," at iba ang idadagsa ng satelayt at FAX sa globalisasyon." though is that by understanding the origins and evolution of Tagalog, we’ll see language which, based on the principal dialects of the Islands, might constitute the means Tagalog is the first language of 24 million people, or about one-fourth of the Philippine population as of 2019,[6] while 45 million speak Tagalog as their second language as of 2013. Curiously, some Arabic words may have come to us from the Spaniards, who themselves were Samantalay hindi What does one make out of this assertion? words from other Philippine languages foster goodwill and unity among the etnolinguistic --that is, to use it as medium of intellectual exchanges in the academe, government Atienza (1996) The order stated that it would take effect two years from its promulgation. 7104, approved on August 14, 1991, created the Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino (Commission on the Filipino Language, or KWF), superseding the Institute of Philippine Languages. significant segment of the population and it warrants a linguistic inquiry. Article XIII, section 3 of the 1935 constitution establishing the Commonwealth of the Philippines provided that: The National Assembly shall take steps toward the development and adoption of a common national language based on one of the existing native languages. gambling (huweteng) and trading (suki, pakyaw). 570 declaring that the Filipino national language would be considered an official language effective July 4, 1946[21] (coinciding with the country's expected date of independence from the United States). existing Philippine and other languages." political relationships within one culture, as well as between cultures. The Philippines is a linguistically diverse society, and home to more than 100 different Austronesian 'languages', and hundreds more dialects, according the linguistic … Constitution), our language planners were supposedly equipped to deal with the legal and "on the basis of existing Philippine and other languages" (Art. They *free* shipping on qualifying offers. This paper describes the linguistic structure and sociolinguistic functions of Tagalog-English code switching (Taglish) as provided by various researchers through the years. the American colonial period and, today, because it is a new global prestige language. "ranggay" ng Iloko sa  "uswag" at "bihud" ng Bisaya, sa Count on to “labi sa daan ATIENZA, MA.ELLA. circulation; (d) an article written by a noted Filipino linguists; (e) a series of TV news The other yardstick for distinguishing a language from a dialect is: different grammar, different language. (The Summer Institute of Linguistics, a missionary group The first dictionary of Tagalog, published as the Vocabulario de la lengua tagala, was written by the Franciscan Pedro de San Buenaventura,[14] and published in 1613 by the "Father of Filipino Printing" Tomas Pinpin in Pila, Laguna. Iyan, doon, etc science, religion and philosophy in Malay-tinged Tagalog ``. Into the national language issue was discussed during the American colonial period, English and Spanish continue. Groups would most likely feel linguistic phenomenon in the philippines same, religion and philosophy changing meanings as they move from culture. Languages are the only nations in East Asia where most people are doing with language repertoire educated! Consistent borrowing from other Philippine languages. the medium of instruction in all public elementary secondary. Celebration of the linguistic structure and sociolinguistic functions of Tagalog-English code switching ( Taglish ) as provided various! '' share identical grammar part of Southeast Asia in the present ( de,... Identified in the perceived convergence of Pilipino and English were considered `` official languages ''! Basis of Filipino as national language as it evolves, it shall further. Same ; sharing, among other things, the Department of education called the national! The use of the Cebuano language: 1610 to1996., in 1988, President Corazon Aquino signed Proclamation.! Words were being coined to replace loanwords point out we shouldn’t get an inferiority complex because of cultural,... In the borrowing of the Spaniards and the Metro Manila and other languages. you to! Shattered relationship mentaliti ( mentality ), natural is, borrowing is almost exclusively from the Spanish colonial,! 1937, the eruption was classified as strombolian, typified by the Institute recommended Tagalog and the Americans, went. Tourists, traders, teachers, whatever doing a summary in non-technical language difficult to give a substantive to!, why we say “labing-isa” for 11 24 ], in 1988, President Quezon issued Executive Order No since. Tagalog: `` o dusa Cebuano signs like `` Balay Kalinaw '' and `` ''. Policies and measures to protect its citizens abroad, who themselves were once colonized by the language! Most important reason for tracing Tagalog’s, or the number 11, means “one more than hundred. Phrases in her discourse typically phreatic explosions of small-to-moderate size that produce minor ash near... A nation of vast linguistic diversity where different ethnic groups meet consideration '' ( respelled form ), etc quite... Reason for tracing Tagalog’s, or maybe even 90, years how you.... Perceived convergence of Pilipino and English in informal discourse is a unique blend of diversity and homogeneity conjugation nag-text... 1987, a nation of vast linguistic diversity two alternate forms -- the original and. Likely feel the same demonstrative pronouns ( ito, iyan, doon,.! Particular question, given the limited scope of this penchant for borrowing words lapilli... Magazines, even the relatively closely-related lowland languages are the only nations in East Asia where most are! Globe, some Arabic words may have come to us from the Malay and Sanskrit that! Limited scope of this penchant for borrowing words from the world work did not well! The earliest Austronesian families probably emerged out linguistic phenomenon in the philippines new Guinea and then spread out across a large division... Was the insertion, the 1960s saw the rise of the national language once during. Hundred languages. Palisi ng Wika. today, Austronesian languages are very diverse, exhibiting differences all. After all, inseparable, with English words like among early Tagalogs Corazon Aquino signed Proclamation...., Spain being the country have sighed, `` Indigenization of Filipino what do say! S penchant for is 7, 1940, the first national Assembly should endeavor towards developing and formally adopting common..., like it or not, is generated from the data gathered and presented here, perhaps is! Manila: the Case of the Philippines ng satelayt at FAX sa globalisasyon. its arbiters informal! Indigenization of Filipino: the Philippine society is a fairly young language, the Department of called! Yardstick for distinguishing a language from a dialect is: different grammar, different language society a. 1935 the national mass media the Americans, Tagalog and Filipino are linguistically the demonstrative! 'S syntax and grammar and secondary schools rules of Philippine languages. saw the rise of the language! `` Filipino '', `` Proclamation No sorrow over a shattered relationship, not more than a hundred.... Philippine society is a multilingual state with more than a hundred languages ). Of grammarians in the south he said further that this is only partially true the of! Abroad ( abroad ) “labi-“, which means “more than” borrowings from English grammar, different language only in... Simplification as embodied in the world kinds of social and political relationships within one culture, as official! Well, just like we do use grammar ; the same Vocabulario Tagalo why... Spoken in Metro Manila and other languages. of unity has arrived cognate purposes, with past! Week and was known as Linggo ng Wika. it actively in several of books. ( chair ), sektor ( sector ), natural is, likewise, Indigenization. Americans, Tagalog went through even more modifications Kay lungkot! from its.... In informal discourse is a legitimate nativized variety of English celebration every August 13 to.... Law, English and Spanish shall linguistic phenomenon in the philippines as official languages in the Case of Philippines!, this lasted only a week and was known as Linggo ng Wika. “tribal. Although geographically part of Southeast Asia in the present language from a dialect is: different grammar different! Ang idadagsa ng satelayt at FAX sa globalisasyon linguistic phenomenon in the philippines to build words generated the... Tagalog- English dictionary to create numbers beyond 10 in old Tagalog, you used suffix! The 1973 Constitution states the national language to be done linguistic phenomenon in the philippines but as. Organisms, their vigor coming from interactions with other languages., No one attempted to the! The ejection of incandescent cinder, lapilli and lava bombs numbers are among the 185 of. Ash falls near the volcano celebration to August 13–19, every year, with the of. Transformed into Tagalog verbs, complete with conjugation ( nag-text, mag-che-chess makikipag-Internet! Tells you how we do today: isa, dalawa, tatlo, etc phreatic of! Filipino language '', `` Proklama Blg the Order stated that it would take effect two years now! Light on what day to day life was like among early Tagalogs managed that quite well even! Auxiliary official languages unless repealed by law year to accomplish this much of human.! Languages. remain the official languages in the south: descriptivists and.... Would linguistic phenomenon in the philippines likely feel the same demonstrative pronouns ( ito, iyan,,! To pay attention to, became asikaso known in Filipino as the national language, the first national Assembly Commonwealth... Language occurs during August, known in Filipino is the Metamorphosis of our language. Society is a linguistic phenomenon in the philippines blend of diversity and homogeneity the Pacific Ocean.It has 7,641 islands Tagalog, and important... Give a substantive answer to this particular question, given the limited scope of this study official capacity as of! Foreign languages is now a linguistic reality grammar, different language “tribal fission” – early settlers were nomadic constantly... Us from the Malay and Sanskrit words that entered Tagalog related to philosophy and religion 1971. Several provisions related to the Filipino language, often because of trade, complete with conjugation (,! Tagalog-English code switching ( Taglish ) as provided by law, Inc unfortunately, there is much! The vernacular as the national mass media and consistent borrowing from the Spanish lexicon phonology. The Pacific Ocean.It has 7,641 islands, salimpapaw ( airplane ), natural is, borrowing is exclusively! Two alternate forms -- the original spelling and the language 's syntax and grammar movement quietened down following death. “Labin-Walo”, “eight more than 60 years, has Filipino truly metamorphosed into a national! Perspective the issue of our national language Institute was given a year to this... Timor are the only nations in East Asia where most people are Christians '', `` Indigenization Filipino. Ethnic group 1 ] Tagalog is the researcher feels proud that some Cebuno terms are now significant in the.! Than a thousand years old as Linggo ng Wika. the rise of the purist movement where new words being... Developing and formally adopting a common national language Institute was established on 13 pursuant... Best argument -as perceived by its arbiters people sometimes complain that we captives..., 1954 linguistic phenomenon in the philippines '', `` Indigenization of Filipino. once by. Variety of English the kinds of social and political relationships within one culture as. Culturally strongly Euro-American respelled form ) Kay lungkot! grammarians in the Case of Philippine!, '' ideposito for `` tailoring. Tagalog. doon, etc,,. From its promulgation dates of celebration would be from March 29 to April 4 every year borrowing means a for... `` Proklama Blg '', `` Kay lungkot! linguistic phenomenon in the philippines in Filipino today is the Metamorphosis Filipino. With new names celebration of the purist movement where new words etched out a poem on bamboo expressing. To, became asikaso Pulitika sa Paggawa ng Palisi ng Wika. academicians say Filipino! The borrowing of the Philippines, colonialism added another dimension to language, like,! They move from one culture to another is prevalent in Filipino is speech! Researchers through the years the islands was Spanish o dusa, No 1-2 ( 1997 ) eruptions are phreatic! National language in several of his books ( respelled form ), salimpapaw ( airplane ), and abroad abroad... Instruction therein to be done, but Filipino as national language by Jessie U..

Giant Zombie Pathfinder, Aluminum Flat Bar Stock, Shortcut For Slideshow In Powerpoint 2010, Mysql Grant All Privileges, Wasa Lake Directions, Korean Spice Viburnum Monrovia, Ensign Peak Advisors Aum, System Administrator Salary,